Jaak Panksepp (1943-2017) was a pioneering scientist in the neuroscience behind emotions in humans and animals. In his book Affective Neuroscience, he explained the science behind what exactly is going on in our brains when we feel various emotions. The book is cold, hard science written by an expert practicing scientist in the field. That means the book is not an easy read and its main purpose is to be used as a university textbook. This is not a science book written for popular audiences. I was mainly interested in one chapter within this book, as I had heard it referred to at various times by other people discussing the phenomena of mammalian play. Panksepp is the scientist who conclusively demonstrated that mammal brains have a separate PLAY circuit in them, and I wanted to get the information on that research straight from the source.
Panksepp lays out his evidence for a ludic brain circuit in chapter 15 of his book. He used rats to study play. By doing various brain experiments on them where he damaged various parts of their brain (I hope this is not allowed currently under modern ethical research standards), or administered various chemicals, he was able to figure out where in the brain play urges come from in mammals. Rats, and all mammals, love to play, particularly when they are younger. The only type of play rats show is, of course, rough-and-tumble play (abbreviated RAT play in the chapter). RAT play is easily observable and quantifiable in rat interactions and thus it was a perfect subject for Panksepp’s investigations. A side note is that Panksepp found that rats also laugh, and that they do it a lot while they are playing. Humans obviously have more forms of play than just RAT play, due to our more advanced brains. But Panksepp is careful not to overstep the bounds of his actual experimental results with rats when discussing how play probably works in the brains of humans. He admits that he can not experimentally show where these alternate forms of human play come from in the human brain itself, but he does say his own best guess would be that humans also have the one PLAY circuit in their brains, just like rats and the other mammals do, and that those ludic impulses that it produces are being modified by the reasoning centers of the brain. He does not think that human brains have separate play circuits in the brain for different types of play since such a configuration would seem to be unnecessary. Regardless of his conjecture in this area, there are some interesting things he managed to determine experimentally about play.
Rise of the Dungeon Master, written by David Kushner and illustrated by Koren Shadmi, is a graphic novel introduction to the history of Dungeons and Dragons. It’s meant to be informative to someone who has no previous knowledge of the history of the game. As such it might be a good book to hand out to a brand-new player in a game of Dungeons and Dragons. It would depend on the person though. The art is in black and white comic style and is very accessible. The story on the other hand is oddly done. The book is written in second person as if the reader were a character in various scenes of D&D history.
In chapter one, the reader is a con attendee in Lake Geneva in 2007. The reader is invited by Gary Gygax to play a game with him. The game of course is D&D and the reader is then given an introduction into what the game is. In the second chapter, the reader becomes Gary Gygax, following him from his early childhood years up through his early adulthood and his creation of the wargame Chainmail. Chainmail included fantasy creatures as playable soldiers in a medieval setting. In chapter three, the reader becomes Dave Arneson. The chapter follows Arneson in his early 20s as he meets Gary Gygax and then subsequently modifies the Chainmail system to create a game with fantasy creatures in a dungeon being fought by the players who control just one hero which levels up as he or she gains experience. In chapter four the reader once again becomes Gygax as he creates Dungeons and Dragons out of Arneson’s concepts and then forms TSR to sell the game. In chapter five the reader becomes Dave Arneson again, followed by several creators of early computer games based off D&D, from Will Crowther to Richard Garriot. In chapter six, the reader is at first William Dear, the detective who started the D&D satanic panic in the 80s. Then the chapter shifts and follows the satanic panic itself. In chapter seven, the reader first follows Gygax as he grows the D&D brand. Then the persepctive changes again to Arneson as he battles legally for credit in the creation of D&D, becomes a teacher at Full Sail in Florida, and sells off his remaining stake in TSR. In chapter eight, the reader becomes a 70s teenager who grows up to have a career in the gaming industry. The chapter covers Wizards of the Coast buying TSR and then releasing third edition and fourth edition. Chapter nine ends the book by covering the deaths of Arneson and Gygax, as well as the release of 5th edition D&D.
All told the book felt a bit disjointed to me, due to its approach of a changing second person perspective. It does provide a general overview of the history of D&D in a way that’s very accessible. There is a small amount of adult language in the book and so parents should be aware of that if they are looking to get the book for their children to read. If it weren’t for those couple of uses of adult language the book would be perfectly useful in an elementary school library’s collection, as it is written on a level that children of about third grade and up could easily understand. Due to that low level of content complexity, the book may feel rather juvenile to an adult reader at times. Thus, the book ends up in a rather weird hybrid situation of child-level complexity mixed with some minor adult content.
Art & Arcana by Newman, Peterson, Witwer, and Witwer is a book that came out recently about the art of Dungeons and Dragons over the course of its history. It is lavishly produced in both a standard edition and a collector’s edition. The Eye of the Beholder: The Art of Dungeons and Dragons is a new independent documentary about the same subject, which is available on the various streaming services. Let me say up front that I highly recommend both to anyone interested in role-playing games or even just fantasy art. That being said, they should both be viewed critically with an understanding that the creators of these two takes on the history of the game are definitely long-time fans of the game. This needs to be factored in when analyzing them.
I started playing Dungeons and Dragons right after 5th edition came out to find yet another mentally stimulating activity to do with my own children. Role-playing tabletop games are a bonanza of high order thinking practice for their players. The way they jog creative impulses in their players is unparalleled in gaming today. And so, I highly recommend their use to parents and teachers. As a nerd who was born in the 70s and came of age in the 80s, I had grown up alongside Dungeons and Dragons, although I never played it in its real form. I had played computer games based on the ruleset of the game, however, and enjoyed them. So, I came into the role-playing tabletop hobby knowing tertiarily about the game, but not fully understanding what exactly it was all about (to say the least). I certainly didn’t have a solid grasp of its history. However, I also did not have decades of cognitive dissonance, protecting the game, built up within me from trying to defend the game against its critics. But I do love learning the history of things and it wasn’t long before I started researching the topic.
Dungeon and Dreamers, by Brad King and John Borland, is a history of the rise of computer gaming and its basis in the tabletop game Dungeons and Dragons. The book narratively recounts the life of Richard Garriott, a pioneer programmer of early computer games who is still making games today. Garriott created the Ultima series of computer role-playing games, which eventually led to Ultima Online, one of the first massively multiplayer online games. The book shows how Dungeons and Dragons was a major influence on Garriott and his games. Woven within the stories of Garriott’s life are stories of other computer game programmers, like John Carmack, Wil Wright, Willie Crowther, and Don Woods. Throughout the stories, the influence of Dungeons and Dragons is shown. The book chronicles the rise of the second wave of computer gamers who were not experienced with Dungeons and Dragons, but still influenced by the game’s pervasive hold on the first wave of game programmers.
The book also covers the controversy over violence in video games spurred by the Columbine shootings. In this section, it follows the story of Henry Jenkins, a media critic, who was called upon to defend violent video games before a Senate subcommittee. The book does a good job of covering the arguments that both sides were making, but it is obvious the author sympathizes with the side that feels the games are not what caused the shooters to do what they did.
The authors have put out a second edition of the book which I just got. In it they follow Richard Garriot through the failure of Tabula Rasa, analyze the success of World of Warcraft, and chronicle the rise and fall of Second Life. So if you are going to get the book I would be sure you are getting the second edition.
Playing at the World is a historical book, written by Jon Peterson, focused on the history of chess’s evolution into war games and from there into role-playing games. It is a scholarly approach to the subject done with great attention to detail and massive amounts of primary source research. The book is a fascinating read for anyone interested in modern gaming, and more particularly in role-playing games and their war game forerunners.
This book is the most thoroughly researched book out there on the history of the evolution of gaming. It helps that the author is quite eloquent, in order to get through the vast amount of ground covered in the book.
A very tiny thumbnail sketch of the of the history within the book follows.
Chess was used as a strategy training game within military academies and royal families for much of its early history. In the late 1700s and on through the 1800s it became obvious to various people that it was simply too unrealistic a game to adequately test the strategic mental mettle of future officers. Thus, came the attempts to make the game more realistic. More units were added. Terrain effects were added in. The grid system was eventually done away with in favor of more free form measured movement. Most importantly, the new mathematical field of statistics was gaining a foothold within military circles. Statistical analyses of past wars and battles allowed people to determine the exact percent probability various weapons and groups of troops had of success in battles based on a variety of circumstances. These statistics were eventually incorporated into the war games being played. This meant that dice needed to be added in to the games to model the various probability spreads. Previous to this dice had been viewed as merely the implements of gamblers, but now they became statistical tools in modeling the real world. These war games became ever more complex as they evolved. Eventually, most of them started to use referees whose job it would be to determine the validity of actions a player might want to take. In other words, in an effort to make the games as strategic as possible it was necessary to bring in a separate player whose sole job was to listen to whatever the other players could imagine attempting and then rule on its result in an impartial way. This process happened throughout the 1800s within Prussia for the most part. However, it spread from there throughout the world as other nations began to be interested in what Prussia was doing to train its military officers.
Eventually these war games moved into the hobby arena around the beginning of the 1900s as companies began producing various lines of toy soldiers and other miniatures for play. HG Wells wrote a book titled “Little Wars” on how to use these toys to play war games at this time. Robert Louis Stevenson was also known to play these games before HG Wells.
But then the invention of the atomic bomb happened. Suddenly tabletop war games with miniatures didn’t make much sense anymore in terms of real world applicability within military training circles. Far more important now was the negotiations between the leaders of nuclear powers. Thus, defense contractors like RAND and military colleges began to invent simulation games where players played the roles of the leaders of governments. This becomes one of the first uses of the term “role-playing”. (The very first use of the term was in psychotherapy.) The war gaming hobbyists outside of official military circles also became uninterested in trying to recreate modern warfare on the tabletop.
Thus, war gaming as a whole became more and more anachronistic in its subject matter. Once Vietnam rolled around, war became downright unpopular among the college youth who were the main players of war games. This probably contributed to the desire with some to start moving war games into the realm of fantasy. Tolkien and other Sword and Sorcery writers were extremely popular among these gamers.
Gary Gygax, a pacifist of the Jehovah Witness faith, published a ruleset designed to help run medieval games called Chainmail, which also ended with a section on how to incorporate fantastical elements (mainly from Tolkien) into the games. Dave Arneson, a wargaming college student, took ideas from Chainmail and developed the idea of a fantasy medieval game where the players played only one character rather than a whole army of nameless ones. These characters would get stronger as they played. The characters would go down into dungeons beneath the fictional Castle Blackmoore and fight all manner of fantastical beasts for treasure. Arneson took his ideas to Gygax in a very unfinished casual form. Gygax loved the ideas and worked to massively expand and organize the rules into a game that could be sold. And so Dungeons and Dragons was born. The game grew and grew over the years and eventually influenced basically all of modern gaming, whether it be electronic or tabletop gaming. The idea that characters get stronger through taking on challenges originated for the most part with Dungeons and Dragons. Gygax also collected a monster manual of all the mythical creatures throughout history that he could find for the heroes to battle. He also added many ones of his own invention. The end result was the most extensive collection of fantasy creatures ever published before. Most modern people’s ideas about what fantastical and mythical creatures are supposed to be like comes from Dungeons and Dragons, whether they know it or not.
The last chapter deals with the misguided religious backlash against the game that happened in the 80s. The backlash happened because a college student, James Egbert III, disappeared, and his parents hired a private detective. The detective found out that the young man played D & D with a lot of college friends. These friends also liked to play down in the steam tunnels beneath the college doing what would today be called LARPing. Most people at this point, including the detective, had never heard of D & D. They did not know how popular it had become across college campuses. The detective thought that playing a game with wizards and fantastical creatures was very disturbing and believed that the young man must have been too brain addled to tell the difference between reality and fantasy games and that something nefarious had happened to him due to the game. The detective wrote a book about it and started talking to media about the game and how disturbing he found it. Newspapers jumped on board without doing any research in a snowball of ever more hyperbolic headlines about a sinister game brainwashing the minds of the youth. The young man was later found safe and sound. He had run away due to personal issues. It had nothing to do with D & D at all of course. But predictably the newspapers and press did not print detractions once the truth was discovered and the legend among the uniformed public of a game that brainwashed children into weird behaviors and beliefs continued to persist.
Next, a boy, Irving Pulling II committed suicide and his mother, Patricia Pulling, found some D & D books of his and got it into her head that D & D must have turned her son into a Satanist and that this was the cause of his suicide. Apparently, the mother was clueless her son had been playing the game and only found out by going through his room. She then started an organization dedicated to advocating against the game and rock music, which she also felt was turning youth into Satanists. She wrote a book called The Devil’s Web about these fears as well. Various uninformed Christian pastors jumped on the Satanic scare at that point and began preaching the evils of D & D.
However, as usually happens when adults start criticizing something benign as being an evil influence on youth, many youths were then drawn to D & D as part of youthful rebellion. The sales of Dungeons and Dragons soared ever higher as the controversy went on. In fact, I wonder if D & D would have ever reached the level of popularty it has without those misguided protests. We are now long past the controversy these days.
The book ends with discussing how D & D has played a major role in influencing modern digital games. It’s hard to imagine a major video game without some form of hit points and character progression these days.
And with that the book closes. I enjoyed the book immensely and learned a great deal. I did not grow up playing D & D. Instead I played the early computer role-playing games and adventure games which were based on D & D, from Zork to Wizardry. Now as a parent and educator I see the worth of using the paper and pencil role playing games with children. There are few leisure activities that come close to approaching the mental activity required to play these games. And so, it was fascinating for me to learn the rather exhaustive history of how these games evolved from chess over a process of a couple centuries. I definitely recommend reading this book if you are interested in modern gaming.
After reading the books and fully understanding the history involved, I can see the importance of chess in a way I simply hadn't before. Because of that, in my gaming club and with my own children, I now explicity draw the comparison with chess whenever I play a new game with them. And I discuss with them in a critical manner the way in which the modern game modifies chess (and then possibly D&D) as high-order-thinking analysis practice.
This book, written by the the late Stephen Hawking and his daughter Lucy, is a wonderful way to promote a love and appreciation for real science. Each of the five books in this series focus on a particular subject within the overarching Science branch of Physics.
The premise of book one is that an elementary school aged boy, George, has a scientist and his family move in next door. The scientist, Eric (an obvious fictional avatar for Stephen Hawking himself), has a daughter, Annie, who is a little younger than George, and a wife, Susan who is a music teacher. George has parents that are ecoactivists and have taught George to distrust Science and Technology. They use candles rather than electric lights, grow their own vegetables, are vegetarians who cook all their food from scratch (like broccoli and spinach muffins), don't use computers at all, and go on protest marches. At the beginning of the story George is embarrassed somewhat by his parents because he is made different from the other children at school because of them. Then George meets Annie and her father next door. Eric shows George that Science is amazing and not something to fear. He also teaches George that Scientists are concerned about the state of the planet (and working to help the situation) and that he admires George's parents for taking a stand. So George learns to be proud of his parents' foresight and comes to realize that he wants to grow up and be a scientist. George's parents eventually learn to accept Science and it's possible benefit to the planet and humanity. And of course everyone becomes friends in the end.
In order to accomplish all of these realizations on the part of all the characters in the story, the authors weave an amusing sci-fi plot complete with the world's most powerful computer (a quantum one), named Cosmos (able to create doorways into just about anywhere in the Universe), a comet ride around the solar system, an evil (or maybe not) scientist teacher, a black hole (which of course relies on Hawking radiation as a plot device), school bullies, and a grape-soda-loving escaped pig.
The book is interspersed with science essays that could be a bit over the head of younger elementary students and even sometimes older ones. They will be interesting for more advanced students however. It also includes many full color glossy photos from the Hubble. Science facts about the solar system and other cosmic objects are woven into the plot. Also incorporated into the plot is an understanding of how real science actually works and how scientists work together to accomplish it.
I've read this series to 5th grade classes and 2nd grade classes. Both ages of students loved the book and the following ones. My own children at ages 5 and 8 loved this series as well. I highly recommend the series to parents and teachers. Every elementary school library should have a copy of these. Also, the audiobook versions of these are very well done, although they take out all the science essays. They are dramatized with fun sound effects and voice acting.